Recent research seeks to ‘move beyond’ the civic/ethnic dichotomy of understanding national identity. A recent contribution to this debate, using empirical evidence relating to several ethnic groups in Ukraine, proposes a fourfold typology. Details and abstract as follows:
Holley Hansen & Vicki Hesli, ‘National Identity: Civic, Ethnic, Hybrid, and Atomised Individuals’ , Europe-Asia Studies 61 (1), pp1-28
We challenge the civic-ethnic dichotomy drawn by previous authors and propose a four-category typology of identities based on out-group tolerance and in-group attachment. Drawing from work on national identity formation and nation-building, we test hypotheses about the processes that cause individuals to adopt one identity over others using survey data based on representative samples of five ethnic groups in Ukraine. We find that the effects of socialisation processes vary greatly depending upon ethnic group. Our results challenge some long-held assumptions about the potential destabilising effects of ‘ethnic’ identities and the degree to which ‘civic’ identities correspond to values and behaviours supportive of democracy.